Feroz Mohd Khan

Feroz Mohd Khan is an Indian social worker, Politician, activist and the Member of Peace committee of Delhi Minorities commision, Member of advisory committee in Sugra Public School, Vice President Aam Aadmi Party Okhla and Ex Joint Secretary of JMISU. He is a recipient of the Salute Tiranga award, among other honors.

Biography

Feroz Mohd Khan was born on 20 January 1976 to Late Ashfaq Mohd Khan in Bulandshahar, a town in the state of Uttar Pradesh. He completed his B.B.S. from Jamia Millia Islamia University. and it was during this period, he participated in the JMISU elections and become Joint Secretary. During the Corona Period he was in front line and distributed all essentials Ration kits, Distributed food less fortunate and poors.

Awards and honors

Salute Tiranga Award

Plasma News Award

Noor Shiksha Foundation Award

Itehad welfare Society Award

Hamari Duniya Trust Award

Samaj sudhar Trust Award

Personal life

Feroz Mohd Khan Lived in New Delhi with his wife and son

Hobbies

His hobbies are Social Work, Sports and Travelling

His long term goal is to help poor and marginalized peoples.

Nitish Kumar

Nitish Kumar (born 1 March 1951) is an Indian politician, who is serving as 22nd Chief Minister of Bihar, a state in India, since 2015 and has served in that role on five previous occasions. He has also served as a minister in the Union Government of India.

Kumar is a member of the Janata Dal (United) political party. Kumar’s government was hailed by the state as a pleasant change from a long spell of rampant corruption, crimes and misgovernance. As the Chief Minister, he appointed more than 100,000 school teachers, ensured that doctors worked in primary health centres, electrified many villages, paved roads, cut female illiteracy by half, turned around a lawless state by cracking down on criminals and doubled the income of the average Bihari.

On 17 May 2014, Kumar resigned, taking responsibility for his party’s poor performance in the 2014 general elections, and was succeeded by Jitan Ram Manjhi. However, he returned to office in February 2015 following a political crisis in Bihar and won the state elections of November 2015. He was elected as the national president of his party on 10 April 2016. He resigned again on 26 July 2017 as Chief Minister of Bihar due to differences with the coalition partner, Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD), following the naming of Tejashwi Yadav, the Deputy Chief Minister and RJD member, in a First Information Report alleging corruption filed by the Central Bureau of Investigation. Hours later, he joined the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) coalition, which had thus far been the opposition, and secured a majority in the assembly. He became chief minister again on the following day. The Bihar government under Kumar banned alcohol in the state in April 2016.

 

 

Early life

Nitish Kumar was born on 1 March 1951 in Bakhtiarpur, Bihar. His father, Kaviraj Ram Lakhan Singh, was an ayurvedic practitioner; his mother was Parmeshwari Devi. Nitish belongs to Kurmi agricultural caste.

He has earned a degree in mechanical engineering[7] from Bihar College of Engineering (now NIT Patna) in 1972. He joined the Bihar State Electricity Board, half-heartedly, and later moved into politics. He married Manju Kumari Sinha (1955-2007) on 22 February 1973 and the couple has one son. Manju Sinha died in New Delhi on 14 May 2007 due to pneumonia. 

Political career

Nitish Kumar belongs to a socialist class of politicians. During his early years as a politician he was associated with the likes of Jayaprakash NarayanRam Manohar LohiaS. N. SinhaKarpuri Thakur and V. P. Singh. Kumar participated in Jayaprakash Narayan’s movement between 1974 and 1977 and joined the Janata party headed by Satyendra Narain Sinha.

Union Minister

Kumar was briefly, the Union Minister for Railways and Minister for Surface Transport and later, the Minister for Agriculture in 1998–99, in the NDA government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. In August 1999, he resigned following the Gaisal train disaster, for which he took responsibility as a minister. However, in his short stint as Railway Minister, he brought in widespread reforms, such as internet ticket booking facility in 2002, opening a record number of railway ticket booking counters and introducing the tatkal scheme for instant booking.

Later that year, he rejoined the Union Cabinet as Minister for Agriculture. From 2001 to May 2004, he was – again – the Union Minister for Railways. In the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, he contested elections from two places, when he was elected from Nalanda but lost from his traditional constituency, Barh.

Chief Minister of Bihar

In March 2000, Nitish was elected Chief Minister of Bihar for the first time at the behest of the Vajpayee Government in the center. NDA and allies had 151 MLA whereas Lalu Prasad Yadav had 159 MLA in 324 member house. Both alliances were less than the majority mark that is 163. Nithish resigned before he could prove his numbers in the house. 

Kumar’s government also initiated bicycle and meal programs. Giving bicycles to girls who stayed in school resulted in the state getting a huge number of girls into schools and a reduction in school dropout rates.

In 2010, Kumar’s party swept back to power along with its then allies, the Bharatiya Janata Party, and he again became Chief Minister. The alliance won 206 seats, while the RJD won 22. For the first time, electorates witnessed high turnout of women and young voters, while this was declared as the fairest election in Bihar, with no bloodshed or poll violence.

 

Biographies

  • Sankarshan Thakurauthored a book based on his life titled Single Man: The Life and Times of Nitish Kumar of Bihar.
  • Arun Sinha has authored a book titled Nitish Kumar and The Rise of Bihar.

Awards and recognition

  • Anuvrat Puraskar, by Shwetambar Terapanthi Mahasabha (Jain organisation), for enforcing total prohibition on liquor in Bihar, 2017
  • JP Memorial Award, Nagpur’s Manav Mandir, 2013
  • Ranked 77th in Foreign Policy Magazine‘top 100 global thinkers 2012
  • XLRI, Jamshedpur Sir Jehangir Ghandy Medal for Industrial & Social Peace 2011
  • “MSN Indian of the Year 2010”
  • NDTV Indian of the Year– Politics, 2010
  • Forbes‘”India’s Person of the Year”, 2010
  • CNN-IBN“Indian of the Year Award” – Politics, 2010
  • NDTV Indian of the Year – Politics, 2009
  • Economics Times“Business Reformer of the Year 2009”
  • Polio Eradication Championship Award 2009, by Rotary International
  • CNN-IBNGreat Indian of the Year – Politics, 2008
  • The Best Chief Minister,[47]according to the CNN-IBN and Hindustan Times State of the Nation Poll 2007

Positions held

Period Positions Note
1977 Contested first assembly elections on a Janata Party ticket from Harnaut but lost
1980 Contested from Harnaut again, this time on Janata Party (Secular) ticket. But he lost again. 
1985–89 Member, Bihar Legislative Assembly, from Harnaut First term in Legislative Assembly
1986–87 Member, Committee on Petitions, Bihar Legislative Assembly
1987–88 President, Yuva Lok Dal, Bihar
1987–89 Member, Committee on Public Undertakings, Bihar Legislative Assembly.
1989 Secretary-General, Janata Dal, Bihar
1989 Elected to 9th Lok Sabha from Barh First term in Lok Sabha
1989 – 16 July 1990 Member, House Committee Resigned
April 1990–November 1990 Union Minister of State, Agriculture and Co-operation
1991 Re-elected to 10th Lok Sabha 2nd term in Lok Sabha
1991–93 General-Secretary, Janata Dal.
Deputy Leader of Janata Dal in Parliament
17 December 1991 – 10 May 1996 Member, Railway Convention Committee
8 April 1993 – 10 May 1996 Chairman, Committee on Agriculture
1996 Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha.
Member, Committee on Estimates.
Member, General Purposes Committee.
Member, Joint Committee on the Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment Bill, 1996)
Third term in Lok Sabha
1996–98 Member, Committee on Defence
1998 Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha 4th term in Lok Sabha
19 March 1998 – 5 August 1999 Union Cabinet Minister, Railways
14 April 1998 – 5 August 1999 Union Cabinet Minister, Surface Transport (additional charge)
1999 Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha 5th term in Lok Sabha
13 October 1999 – 22 November 1999 Union Cabinet Minister, Surface Transport
22 November 1999 – 3 March 2000 Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture
3 March 2000 – 10 March 2000 Chief Minister, Bihar as 29th Chief Minister of Bihar, only for 7 days
27 May 2000 – 20 March 2001 Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture
20 March 2001 – 21 July 2001 Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture, with an additional charge of Railways
22 July 2001 – 21 May 2004 Union Cabinet Minister, Railways
2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha, from Nalanda.
Member, Committee on Coal & Steel.
Member, General Purposes Committee.
Member, Committee of Privileges.
Leader Janata Dal (U) Parliamentary Party, Lok Sabha
6th term in Lok Sabha
24 November 2005 – 24 November 2010 Chief Minister, Bihar as 31st Chief Minister of Bihar
2006 Elected to Bihar Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council)
26 November 2010 – 17 May 2014 Chief Minister, Bihar as 32nd Chief Minister of Bihar
22 February 2015 – 19 November 2015 Chief Minister, Bihar as 34th Chief Minister of Bihar
20 November 2015 – 26 July 2017 Chief Minister, Bihar as 35th Chief Minister of Bihar
27 July 2017 – Chief Minister, Bihar as 36th Chief Minister of Bihar
2018 Elected to Bihar Vidhan Parishad, third term

Nitin Gadkari

Nitin Jairam Gadkari (born 27 May 1957) is an Indian politician and businessman from Maharashtra who is the current Minister for Road Transport & Highways and the Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in the Government of India. Gadkari earlier served as the President of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) from 2009 to 2013. He is also known for his work as the Public Works Department Minister of the State of Maharashtra, where, under his leadership, a series of roads, highways and flyovers across the state were constructed – including the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, India’s first six-lane concrete, high-speed expressway. Gadkari is closely associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which is headquartered in his home constituency of Nagpur. He currently represents the Nagpur constituency in the Lok Sabha, and is a lawyer and industrialist by occupation.

 

Background and education

Nitin Gadkari was born into a Marathi family in Nagpur, India to Jairam Gadkari and Bhanutai Gadkari. During his adolescence, he worked for the Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha and the student union Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad. He completed M.Com. and L.L.B. from Nagpur University.

Political career

Nitin Gadkari served as the Minister of Public Works Department (PWD) of the Government of Maharashtra from 1995 to 1999 and restructured it from top to bottom.[17] He has served as the president of the Maharashtra BJP.

Gadkari strongly supported privatisation while he campaigned for investments in infrastructure from private firms. He addressed several meetings between private investors, contractors, builders and various trade organisations and diverted large amounts of budgeted projects towards privatisation. Subsequently, the state government allocated Rs. 7 billion for rural connectivity. Over the next four years, all-weather road connectivity in Maharashtra was extended to 98% of the population. The project aimed to connect 13,736 remote villages which remained unconnected since independence by road. It also helped ameliorate malnutrition in remote MelghatDharni area of Amravati district, which previously had no access to medical aid, ration or educational facilities.

The Union Government appointed him as the Chairman of National Rural Road Development Committee. After a series of meetings and studies, Gadkari submitted his report to the central government and gave the presentation to Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then Prime Minister of India. His new report was accepted and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, an ambitious rural road connecting scheme worth ₹600 billion, was launched.

Just before the 2014 Maharashtra Assembly Elections, Election Commission of India on 6 October 2014 issued a show cause notice to Gadkari for “statements to the effect of inducing the voters to take bribe” during campaigning in Maharashtra assembly polls. According to the English translation of the speech made by the former BJP president in Marathi, he had allegedly said: “Now, I am watching your faces and I have some skill of predicting the future by way of face reading. You have an opportunity of “Laxmi darshan” in next 10 days. Special people to get foreign made, ordinary people to get local brand. All are Gandhivadis asking for ₹5000. In these days of inflation, keep one thing in mind, eat what you wish and drink what you desire. Keep whatever you get. This is the time when illegally earned money can go to poor. Therefore, do not say no to Laxmi. But think while you vote. Your vote should be for the development of Maharashtra.” The Election Commission said his statement amounts to “abetting and promoting the electoral offence of bribery” within the meaning of Section 171 B read with Section 17l E of the IPC as it includes offering food, drink or entertainment.

Positions served

 

Personal life

Nitin Gadkari is married to Kanchan Gadkari and they have three children, Nikhil, Sarang and Ketki. His eldest son Nikhil is married to Rutuja Pathak and Sarang Gadkari is married to Madhura Rodi. Gadkari family follows a vegetarian diet.

Nirmala Sitharaman

Nirmala Sitharaman (born 18 August 1959) is an Indian economist and politician serving as the current Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs of India. She is a member of the Rajya Sabha, upper house of the Indian Parliament, since 2014. Sitharaman formerly served as the Defence Minister of India, thereby becoming India’s second female defence minister and also the second female finance minister after Indira Gandhi, and first full-time female Finance Minister. She has served as the Minister of State for Finance and Corporate Affairs under the Ministry of Finance and the Minister for Commerce and Industry with independent charge. Prior to that, she served as a national spokesperson for the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Sitharaman featured in the Forbes 2020 list of 100 most powerful women and ranked the 41st in the world.

 

Early life

Nirmala Sitharaman was born in a Tamil family in MaduraiTamil Nadu, to Savitri and Narayanan Sitharaman. She had her schooling from Madras and Tiruchirappalli. She obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics at the Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College, Tiruchirapalli in 1980, Master of Arts degree in economics and M.Phil. from Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi in 1984. She then enrolled for a Ph.D. in Economics with a focus on Indo-Europe trade; but a move to London after her husband secured a scholarship in London School of Economics left her unable to complete the degree.

Political career

Sitharaman joined the BJP in 2006 and was appointed as a spokesperson for the party in 2010. In 2014, she was inducted into Narendra Modi‘s cabinet as a junior minister and in June 2014, she was elected as a Rajya Sabha Member from Andhra Pradesh.

In May 2016, she was one of the 12 candidates nominated by the BJP to contest the Rajya Sabha elections due on 11 June 2016. She successfully contested her seat from Karnataka.

Union Cabinet Minister

Union Defence Minister

On 3 September 2017, she was appointed as Minister of Defence, being only the second woman after Indira Gandhi to hold the post, but the first full-time female defence minister.

Union Finance Minister

On 31 May 2019, Nirmala Sitharaman was appointed as the finance and corporate affairs minister. She is India’s first full-time female finance minister. She presented her maiden budget in the Indian parliament on 5 July 2019. Sitharaman presented the Union Budget 2020–21 on 1 February 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic in India she was made in-charge of the COVID-19 Economic Response Task Force.

Non-political career

Nirmala Sitharaman worked as a salesperson at Habitat, a home decor store in London’s Regent Street. She has served as an assistant to Economist in the Agricultural Engineers Association in the UK. During her stay in the UK, she has also served as a Senior Manager (R&D) for PWC and briefly at the BBC World Service.

She has also served as a member of National Commission for Women. In 2017, she was one of the founding directors of Pranava in Hyderabad.

Awards and honors

The Jawaharlal Nehru University conferred her the Distinguished Alumni Award in 2019. Forbes Magazine has ranked her 34th among the 100 most powerful women in the world in 2019.

Personal life

Sitharaman met her husband Parakala Prabhakar who is from NarsapuramAndhra Pradesh, while studying at the Jawaharlal Nehru University. While Nirmala leaned towards the BJP, her husband was from a Congress family. They married in 1986, and have a daughter. Prabhakar served as a communications advisor to the Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister, Chandrababu Naidu.

N. Chandrababu Naidu

Nara Chandrababu Naidu((born 20 April 1950) is an Indian politician and current leader of opposition in the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. He is a former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, serving from 2014 to 2019. He was the first Chief Minister of the state after it was divided. Previously, he served as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh from 1995 to 2004, before the state’s division, and as the leader of the opposition in the united Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 2004 to 2014. He is the National President of the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), and the longest-serving Chief Minister (14 years in office) of Andhra Pradesh.

Naidu has won a number of awards, including IT Indian of the Millennium from India Today, Business Person of the Year by The Economic Times, South Asian of the Year from Time Asia and membership in the World Economic Forum‘s Dream Cabinet. Naidu chaired the National IT Panel under the National Democratic Alliance (India) (NDA) government and was described as one of the “hidden seven” working wonders of the world by Profit (Oracle Corporation‘s monthly magazine). Naidu was offered an honorary professorship by US business school – the Kellogg School of Management in 2000. He was the Chairman of National Task Force on Micro-irrigation from Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture in 2003. He was the head of 13-member Committee of Chief Ministers to promote digital payment systems and financial inclusion in India which was constituted by federal government in 2016.

 

 

Early life and education

Naidu was born on 20 April 1950 at NaravaripalleChittoor districtAndhra Pradesh in an agricultural family. His father, Nara Kharjura Naidu, worked in agriculture and his mother, Amanamma, was a housewife. Since his village had no school, Naidu attended primary school in Seshapuram up to class five and the Chandragiri Government High School up to class nine. He went to Tirupati for his higher education, studying there from class 10 until he received his master’s degree. Naidu completed his BA degree in 1972.

Early political career

Naidu was drawn to politics at an early age, and joined the Indian Youth Congress as a student leader in Chandragiri, near Tirupati in Chittoor district. After the emergency was imposed on the country in 1975, he became a close supporter of the Indian Youth Congress president, Sanjay Gandhi.

Legislative career, 1978–1983

Naidu became a Congress (I) member of the Andhra Pradesh legislative assembly (MLA) for Chandragiri constituency in 1978. The party’s 20% quota for youth to run for the office was beneficial for him. Not long afterwards, Naidu was appointed as the technical education and cinematography minister in T. Anjaiah‘s government at the age of 28. He was the youngest minister in the Congress (I) cabinet.[

As the cinematography minister, Naidu came in contact with N. T. Rama Rao, a popular film star in Telugu cinema. In 1980, he married Bhuvaneswari, Rao’s second daughter.]

Telugu Desam Party

In 1982, N. T. Rama Rao formed the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and swept the assembly polls held in 1983. Naidu, who was then still in the INC, was defeated by a TDP candidate in Chandragiri. He joined the TDP soon after.

 

Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh

On 1 September 1995, Naidu came to power as the Chief Minister by revolting against N.T. Rama Rao. In the last interview, with Reuters, N. T. Rama Rao compared himself to Shah Jahan, a 17th-century Mughal emperor who was imprisoned by his son, and predicted that he would gain his revenge against what he called “the backstabbers” in his family, especially his son-in-law and successor, Naidu.

Chief Ministership (1995–2004)

The Telugu Desam Party, led by Naidu, won a majority in the state legislature: 185 of 294 seats in the Assembly and 29 of 42 at the parliament in the 1999 general election, making it the second-largest party in the BJP-led NDA coalition government.

 

Business career

The Heritage Group (HFL) was incorporated by Naidu in 1992. In 1994, HFL went for public issue to raise resources. Currently, the organisation is being led by Nara Brahmini, Naidu’s daughter-in-law. Heritage has hundreds of outlets throughout Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and a significant presence in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Odisha, NCR-Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, and Himachal Pradesh which comprises a solid portion of Naidu’s current assets.

Literary works

  • India’s Glocal Leader, Tejaswini Pagadala
  • Manasulo Maata, Sevanthi Nenon, An Autobiography of Chandrababu Naidu
  • Nirantar Pragathi Ke Path Par Chandrababu Naidu(in Hindi), Dr. Inagati Lavanya

 

Awards and recognition

  • The Governor of Illinoiscreated a Naidu day in his honour
  • Voted IT Indian of the Millenniumin a poll by India Today and 20:20 Media
  • He was named South Asian of the Yearby Time magazine, USA
  • He was described as one of the hidden “Seven working wonders around the world“, by Profit, a monthly magazine published by Oracle Corporation, US
  • Business Person of the Yearby Economic Times.
  • Golden Peacock Awardfor Leadership in Public Service & Economic Transformation – 2017
  • Global Agriculture Policy Leadership Awardby Indian Council of Food and Agriculture (ICFA).
  • The Pune-based organisation, Bharatiya Chatra Sansad, in partnership with MIT School of Governance, honoured him with Aadarsh Mukhyamantri Puraskar(Model CM Award) in its 6th annual session on 30 January 2016.
  • Transformative Chief Minister Awardin May 2017 by US-India Business Council (USIBC) at West Coast Summit in the Silicon Valley.

Mehbooba Mufti

Mehbooba Mufti (born 22 May 1959) is an Indian politician of the Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), who served as the last Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir as a State, from 4 April 2016 to 19 June 2018. After the revocation of the special status (autonomy) of the state in August 2019, Mufti was detained without any charges at first and later under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act. She was released only in October 2020, after the Supreme Court of India quizzed the government about the length of her detention.

Mufti was the first woman to hold the office of Chief Minister in the state. She formed a coalition government in Jammu and Kashmir jointly with the Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP). She resigned in June 2018 after the BJP withdrew from the coalition.

Mufti is the president of the PDP and was a member of the Indian parliament, representing Anantnag in the 16th Lok Sabha; before she was sworn in as the Chief Minister of J&K. She also represented Anantnag in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004–09).

 

 

Early life

She is the daughter of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed and Gulshan Ara, born in 1959 in Akhran Nowpora. She graduated in English literature from Government College for Women in Jammu, and has a law degree from the University of Kashmir. Post 1989, she shifted to N. Delhi and joined the Bombay Mercantile Bank, after which she worked with East West Airlines, before moving back to J&K. Her ex-husband is a political analyst, an animal-rights activist, and was briefly with National Conference party. She has two daughters, Iltija and Irtiqa. 

Political career

When elections for the state assembly were held in 1996, Mehbooba became one of the most popular members elected from Bijbehara on an Indian National Congress ticket. Her father had returned to the Congress, which he had left in 1987, angry at the alliance that party had formed with its traditional rival in the state, the National Conference. Mehbooba quickly made a mark as the leader of the opposition in the assembly, taking on the government of Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah with asperity.

She resigned her assembly seat and went on to contest the parliamentary elections in 1999 from Srinagar, where she lost to the sitting member Omar Abdullah. She won the Pahalgam seat in the state assembly from South Kashmir, defeating Rafi Ahmed Mir, when assembly elections were held again in 2002. She was elected to the Lok Sabha from Anantnag seat in 2004 and 2014. She defeated Mirza Mehboob Beg in 2014 Lok Sabha Elections.

After her father’s death in January 2016, when he was heading the coalition government in Jammu and Kashmir, she took forward the same alliance with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP), the second time the BJP and the PDP formed a government in Jammu and Kashmir. On 4 April 2016, she took the oath and became the first woman Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

On 25 June 2016, she won an Assembly seat in a by-election in Anantnag with the highest margin in any recent elections there and thereafter focussed on settling of Rohingyas.

She again contested 2019 Lok Sabha elections from Anantnag seat but lost it to Hasnain Masoodi of National Conference.

 

Detention

On 5 August 2019, she was detained by the Central government. Her daughter Iltija Mufti took over her mother’s Twitter account on the 46th day of detention. In November, Iltija Mufti wrote a letter to the Srinagar Deputy Commissioner to shift her mother to a place better equipped for the valley’s winter.

In February 2020 she was further detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act. She was released on 13 October 2020.

25 Nov 2020, Former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister and Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) chief Mehbooba Mufti was detained by Jammu and Kashmir Police and was not allowed to visit South Kashmir’s Pulwama to meet the family of senior PDP leader Waheed Parra, who was arrested by the national investigating agency (NIA) earlier this week.

Mufti said that her daughter Iltija Mufti has also been placed under house arrest.

Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.

Born in Gah, Singh’s family migrated to India during its partition in 1947. After obtaining his doctorate in economics from Oxford, Singh worked for the United Nations during 1966–69. He subsequently began his bureaucratic career when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. During the 1970s and 1980s, Singh held several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief Economic Advisor (1972–76), governor of the Reserve Bank (1982–85) and head of the Planning Commission (1985–87).

In 1991, as India faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao surprisingly inducted the apolitical Singh into his cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalised India’s economy. Although these measures proved successful in averting the crisis, and enhanced Singh’s reputation globally as a leading reform-minded economist, the incumbent Congress party fared poorly in the 1996 general election. Subsequently, Singh served as Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament of India) during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government of 1998–2004.

In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. Singh’s first ministry executed several key legislations and projects, including the Rural Health MissionUnique Identification AuthorityRural Employment Guarantee scheme and Right to Information Act. In 2008, opposition to a historic civil nuclear agreement with the United States nearly caused Singh’s government to fall after Left Front parties withdrew their support. Although India’s economy grew rapidly under UPA I, its security was threatened by several terrorist incidents (including the 2008 Mumbai attacks) and the continuing Maoist insurgency.

The 2009 general election saw the UPA return with an increased mandate, with Singh retaining the office of Prime Minister. Over the next few years, Singh’s second ministry government faced a number of corruption charges—over the organisation of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the 2G spectrum allocation case and the allocation of coal blocks. After his term ended in 2014 he opted out from the race for the office of the Prime Minister of India during the 2014 Indian general election. Singh was never a member of the Lok Sabha but served as a member of the Parliament of India, representing the state of Assam in the Rajya Sabha for five terms from 1991 to 2019. In August 2019, Singh filed his nomination as a Congress candidate to the Rajya Sabha from Rajasthan after the death of sitting MP Madan Lal Saini.

 

Early life and education

Singh was born to Gurmukh Singh and Amrit Kaur on 26 September 1932, in GahPunjabBritish India, into a Sikh family. He lost his mother when he was very young and was raised by his paternal grandmother, to whom he was very close.

After the Partition of India, his family migrated to Amritsar, India, where he studied at Hindu College. He attended Panjab University, then in Hoshiarpur, Punjab, studying Economics and got his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1952 and 1954, respectively, standing first throughout his academic career. He completed his Economics Tripos at University of Cambridge as he was a member of St John’s College in 1957.

In a 2005 interview with the British journalist Mark Tully, Singh said about his Cambridge days:

I first became conscious of the creative role of politics in shaping human affairs, and I owe that mostly to my teachers Joan Robinson and Nicholas Kaldor. Joan Robinson was a brilliant teacher, but she also sought to awaken the inner conscience of her students in a manner that very few others were able to achieve. She questioned me a great deal and made me think the unthinkable. She propounded the left wing interpretation of Keynes, maintaining that the state has to play more of a role if you really want to combine development with social equity. Kaldor influenced me even more; I found him pragmatic, scintillating, stimulating. Joan Robinson was a great admirer of what was going on in China, but Kaldor used the Keynesian analysis to demonstrate that capitalism could be made to work.

After Cambridge, Singh returned to India and served as a teacher at Panjab University. In 1960, he went to the University of Oxford for the DPhil, where he was a member of Nuffield College. His 1962 doctoral thesis under the supervision of I.M.D. Little was titled “India’s export performance, 1951–1960, export prospects and policy implications”, and was later the basis for his book “India’s Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth”.

Early career

After completing his D.Phil., Singh returned to India. He was a senior lecturer of economics at Panjab University from 1957 to 1959. During 1959 and 1963, he served as a reader in economics at Panjab University, and from 1963 to 1965, he was an economics professor there. Then he went to work for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1966–1969. Later, he was appointed as an advisor to the Ministry of Foreign Trade by Lalit Narayan Mishra, in recognition of Singh’s talent as an economist.

From 1969 to 1971, Singh was a professor of international trade at the Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of Delhi.

In 1972, Singh was chief economic adviser in the Ministry of Finance, and in 1976 he was secretary in the Finance Ministry. In 1980–1982 he was at the Planning Commission, and in 1982, he was appointed governor of the Reserve Bank of India under then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee and held the post until 1985. He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission (India) from 1985 to 1987. Following his tenure at the Planning Commission, he was secretary general of the South Commission, an independent economic policy think tank headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland from 1987 to November 1990.

Singh returned to India from Geneva in November 1990 and held the post as the advisor to Prime Minister of India on economic affairs during the tenure of V. P. Singh. In March 1991, he became chairman of the University Grants Commission.

Political career

In June 1991, India’s prime minister at the time, P. V. Narasimha Rao, chose Singh to be his finance minister. Singh told Mark Tully the British journalist in 2005 “On the day (Rao) was formulating his cabinet, he sent his Principal Secretary to me saying, ‘The PM would like you to become the Minister of Finance’. I didn’t take it seriously. He eventually tracked me down the next morning, rather angry, and demanded that I get dressed up and come to Rashtrapati Bhavan for the swearing in. So that’s how I started in politics”.

Minister of Finance

In 1991, India’s fiscal deficit was close to 8.5 per cent of the gross domestic product, the balance of payments deficit was huge and the current account deficit was close to 3.5 percent of India’s GDP. India’s foreign reserves barely amounted to US$1 billion, enough to pay for 2 weeks of imports, in comparison to US$283 billion today.

Evidently, India was facing an economic crisis. At this point, the government of India sought funds from the supranational International Monetary Fund, which, while assisting India financially, imposed several conditions regarding India’s economic policy. In effect, IMF-dictated policy meant that the ubiquitous Licence Raj had to be dismantled, and India’s attempt at a state-controlled economy had to end.

Manmohan explained to the PM and the party that India is facing an unprecedented crisis. However the rank and file of the party resisted deregulation. So Chidambaram and Manmohan explained to the party that the economy would collapse if it was not deregulated. To the dismay of the party, Rao allowed Manmohan to deregulate the Indian economy.

Subsequently, Singh, who had thus far been one of the most influential architects of India’s socialist economy, eliminated the permit raj, reduced state control of the economy, and reduced import taxes

Rao and Singh thus implemented policies to open up the economy and change India’s socialist economy to a more capitalistic one, in the process dismantling the Licence Raj, a system that inhibited the prosperity of private businesses. They removed many obstacles standing in the way of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and initiated the process of the privatisation of public sector companies. However, in spite of these reforms, Rao’s government was voted out in 1996 due to non-performance of government in other areas. In praise of Singh’s work that pushed India towards a market economy, long-time Cabinet minister P. Chidambaram has compared Singh’s role in India’s reforms to Deng Xiaoping‘s in China.

In 1993, Singh offered his resignation from the post of Finance Minister after a parliamentary investigation report criticised his ministry for not being able to anticipate a US$1.8 billion securities scandal. Prime Minister Rao refused Singh’s resignation, instead promising to punish the individuals directly accused in the report.

Leader of Opposition in Rajya Sabha

Singh was first elected to the upper house of Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, in 1991 by the legislature of the state of Assam, and was re-elected in 1995, 2001, 2007and 2013. From 1998 to 2004, while the Bharatiya Janata Party was in power, Singh was the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. In 1999, he contested for the Lok Sabha from South Delhi but was unable to win the seat.

Prime Minister of India

14th Lok Sabha

After the 2004 general elections, the Indian National Congress ended the incumbent National Democratic Alliance (NDA) tenure by becoming the political party with the single largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. It formed United Progressive Alliance (UPA) with allies and staked claim to form government. In a surprise move, Chairperson Sonia Gandhi declared Manmohan Singh, a technocrat, as the UPA candidate for the Prime Ministership. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, according to the BBC, he “enjoyed massive popular support, not least because he was seen by many as a clean politician untouched by the taint of corruption that has run through many Indian administrations.” He took the oath as the Prime Minister of India on 22 May 2004.

Economic policy

In 1991, Singh as Finance Minister, freed India from the Licence Raj, source of slow economic growth and corruption in the Indian economy for decades. He liberalised the Indian economy, allowing it to speed up development dramatically. During his term as Prime Minister, Singh continued to encourage growth in the Indian market, enjoying widespread success in these matters. Singh, along with the former Finance Minister, P. Chidambaram, presided over a period where the Indian economy grew with an 8–9% economic growth rate. In 2007, India achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world. Singh’s ministry enact a National Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in 2005.

Singh’s government continued the Golden Quadrilateral and the highway modernisation program that was initiated by Vajpayee‘s government. Singh also worked on reforming the banking and financial sectors, as well as public sector companies. The Finance ministry worked towards relieving farmers of their debt and worked towards pro-industry policies. In 2005, Singh’s government introduced the value added tax, replacing sales tax. In 2007 and early 2008, the global problem of inflation impacted India.

 

Family and personal life

Singh married Gursharan Kaur in 1958. They have three daughters, Upinder SinghDaman Singh and Amrit Singh. Upinder Singh is a professor of history at Ashoka University. She has written six books, including Ancient Delhi (1999) and A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India (2008). Daman Singh is a graduate of St. Stephen’s College, Delhi and Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat, and author of The Last Frontier: People and Forests in Mizoram and a novel Nine by Nine, Amrit Singh is a staff attorney at the American Civil Liberties Union. Ashok Pattnaik, 1983 batch Indian Police Service officer, son-in-law of former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, was appointed CEO of National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) in 2016.

Singh has undergone multiple cardiac bypass surgeries, the most recent of which took place in January 2009.

Degrees and posts held

Honours, awards and international recognition

In March 1983, Panjab University awarded him Doctor of Letters and in 2009 created a Dr. Manmohan Singh chair in their economics department. In 1997, the University of Alberta awarded him an honorary Doctor of Law degree. The University of Oxford awarded him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree in July 2005, and in October 2006, the University of Cambridge followed with the same honour. St. John’s College further honoured him by naming a PhD Scholarship after him, the Dr. Manmohan Singh Scholarship. In 2008, he was awarded honorary Doctor of Letters degree by Benaras Hindu University] and later that year he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by University of Madras. In 2010, he was awarded honorary doctorate degree by King Saud University and in 2013, he was awarded honorary doctorate degree by Moscow State Institute of International Relations. In 2017 awarded Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development.

He has also received honorary doctorates from University of BolognaUniversity of Jammu and Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.

Year Name of award or honour Awarding organisation
1952 University Medal for standing first in B.A. (Honors Economics) Panjab University, Chandigarh
1954 Uttar Chand Kapur Medal, for standing first in M.A. (Economics) Panjab University, Chandigarh {Was then in Hoshiarpur, Punjab}
1955 Wright Prize for Distinguished Performance St. John’s College, Cambridge, UK
1956 Adam Smith Prize University of Cambridge, UK
1957 Elected Wrenbury Scholar University of Cambridge, UK
1976 Honorary Professorship Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
1982 Elected Honorary Fellow, Indian Institute of Bankers Indian Institute of Bankers
1982 Elected Honorary Fellow, St. John’s College St John’s College, Cambridge
1985 Elected President of the Indian Economic Association Indian Economic Association
1986 Elected National Fellow, National Institute of Education National Institute of Education
1987 Padma Vibhushan Government of India
1993 Finance Minister of the Year Asiamoney
1993 Finance Minister of the Year Euromoney
1994 Elected Honorary Fellow of the All India Management Association All India Management Association
1994 Elected Distinguished Fellow of the London School of Economics London School of Economics, Centre for Asia Economy, Politics and Society
1994 Elected Honorary Fellow, Nuffield College Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
1994 Elected Distinguished Fellow of the London School of Economics London School of Economics, Centre for Asia Economy, Politics and Society
1994 Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award (1994–95) Indian Science Congress Association.
1994 Finance Minister of the Year Asiamoney
1995 Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award (1994–95) Indian Science Congress Association
1996 Honorary Professorship Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of Delhi, Delhi
1997 Nikkei Asia prize for Regional Growth Nihon Keizai Shimbun Inc.
1997 Justice K.S. Hegde Foundation Award Justice K.S. Hegde Foundation
1997 Lokmanya Tilak Award Tilak Smarak Trust, Pune
1999 Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
1999 H.H. Kanchi Sri Paramacharya Award for Excellence Shri R. Venkataraman, The Centenarian Trust
2000 Annasaheb Chirmule Award Annasaheb Chirmule Trust
2002 Outstanding Parliamentarian Award Indian Parliamentary Group
2005 Honorary Fellowship All India Institute of Medical Sciences
2005 Top 100 Influential People in the World Time
2010 World Statesman Award Appeal of Conscience Foundation
2014 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers Government of Japan

Mamata Banerjee

Mamata Banerjee ( born 5 January 1955) is an Indian politician who is serving as the 8th and current Chief Minister of West Bengal since 2011, the first woman to hold the office. She founded the All India Trinamool Congress (AITC or TMC) party in 1998 after separating from the Indian National Congress, and became its chairwoman. She is often referred to as Didi (meaning elder sister in Bengali) by her followers and as Pishi (meaning paternal aunt in Bengali) by many of her critics.

Banerjee previously served twice as Minister of Railways, the first woman to do so. She is also the first female Minister of Coal, and Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Youth Affairs, Sports, Women and Child Development in the cabinet of the Indian government. She rose to prominence after opposing the erstwhile land acquisition policies for industrialisation of the Communist government in West Bengal for Special Economic Zones at the cost of agriculturalists and farmers at Singur. In 2011 Banerjee pulled off a landslide victory for the AITC alliance in West Bengal, defeating the 34-year-old Communist Party of India (Marxist)-led Left Front government, the world’s longest-serving democratically elected communist government, in the process.

 

Early life and education

Banerjee was born in Kolkata (formerly called Calcutta), West Bengal, to a Bengali Hindu family. Her parents were Promileswar Banerjee and Gayetri Devi. Banerjee’s father, Promileswar died due to lack of medical treatment, when she was 17. She identifies herself as a Hindu.

In 1970, Banerjee completed the higher secondary board examination from Deshbandhu Sishu Sikshalay. d her master’s degree in Islamic history from the University of Calcutta. This was followed by a degree in Education from Shri Shikshayatan College and a law degree from Jogesh Chandra Chaudhuri Law College, Kolkata. She also received an honorary doctorate from the Kalinga Institute of Industrial TechnologyBhubaneswar. She was also honoured with a Doctorate of Literature (D.Litt.) degree by Calcutta University.

Banerjee became involved with politics when she was only 15. While studying at the Jogamaya Devi College, she established Chhatra Parishad Unions, the student wing of the Congress (I) Party, defeating the All India Democratic Students Organisation affiliated with the Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist). She continued in the Congress (I) Party in West Bengal, serving in a variety of positions within the party and in other local political organisations.

Early political career, 1984–2011

Political career with Congress

Banerjee began her political career in the Congress party as a young woman in the 1970s. In 1975 she gained attention in the press media when she danced on the car of socialist activist and politician Jayaprakash Narayan as a protest against him. She quickly rose in the ranks of the local Congress group and remained the general secretary of Mahila Congress (Indira), West Bengal, from 1976 to 1980. In the 1984 general election, Banerjee became one of India’s youngest parliamentarians ever, defeating veteran Communist politician Somnath Chatterjee, to win the Jadavpur parliamentary Constituency in West Bengal. She also became the general secretary of the Indian Youth Congress in 1984. She lost her seat to Malini Bhattacharya of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in the 1989 general elections in an anti-Congress wave. She was re-elected in the 1991 general elections, having settled into the Calcutta South constituency. She retained the Kolkata South seat in the 1996199819992004 and 2009 general elections.

Banerjee was appointed the Union Minister of State for Human Resources DevelopmentYouth Affairs and Sports, and Women and Child Development in 1991 by prime minister P. V. Narasimha Rao. As the sports minister, she announced that she would resign and protested in a rally at the Brigade Parade Ground in Kolkata, against the Government’s indifference towards her proposal to improve sports in the country. She was discharged of her portfolios in 1993. In April 1996, she alleged that Congress was behaving as a stooge of the CPI-M in West Bengal. She claimed that she was the lone voice of reason and wanted a “clean Congress”.

 

Founding Trinamool Congress

In 1997, due to difference in political views with the then West Bengal Pradesh Congress Committee president Somendra Nath Mitra, Banerjee left the Congress Party in West Bengal and became one of the founding members of the All India Trinamool Congress, along with Mukul Roy. It quickly became the primary opposition party to the long-standing Communist government in the state. On 11 December 1998, she controversially held a Samajwadi Party MP, Daroga Prasad Saroj, by the collar and dragged him out of the well of the Lok Sabha to prevent him from protesting against the Women’s Reservation Bill.

 

Chief Minister of West Bengal

First term, 2011–16

In 2011, the All India Trinamool Congress along with SUCI and the INC won the West Bengal legislative assembly election against the incumbent Left Alliance by securing 227 seats. TMC won 184 seats with the INC winning 42 seats and the SUCI secured one seat. This marked the end of the longest ruling democratically elected Communist party in the world.

Banerjee was sworn in as chief minister of West Bengal on 20 May 2011. As the first female chief minister of West Bengal, one of her first decisions was to return 400 acres of land to Singur farmers. “The cabinet has decided to return 400 acres to unwilling farmers in Singur,” the chief minister said. “I have instructed the department to prepare the papers for this. If Tata-babu (Ratan Tata) wants, he can set up his factory on the remaining 600 acres, otherwise we will see how to go about it.”

She has also been credited for setting up of the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration.

She began various reforms in the education and health sectors. Some of the reforms in the education sector included the release of teachers’ monthly pay on the first of every month and quicker pensions for retiring teachers. In the health sector Banerjee promised: “A three-phase developmental system will be taken up to improve the health infrastructure and service.” On 30 April 2015, a representative of UNICEF India congratulated the government for making Nadia the first Open Defecation Free district in the country. In a statement on 17 October 2012, Banerjee attributed the increasing incidence of rape in the country to “more free interaction between men and women”. She said that “Earlier if men and women would hold hands, they would get caught by parents and reprimanded but now everything is so open. It’s like an open market with open options.” She was criticised in the national media for these statements.

She was also instrumental in the rollback of the petrol price hikes and the suspension of FDI in the retail sector until a consensus is evolved. In a bid to improve the law and enforcement situation in West Bengal, police commissionerates were created at HowrahBarrackporeDurgapur-Asansol and Bidhannagar. The total area of Kolkata Municipal Corporation has been brought under the control of the Kolkata Police.

Banerjee had shown a keen interest in making the public aware of the state’s history and culture. She named several stations of the Kolkata Metro after freedom fighters, and plans on naming upcoming stations after religious leaders, poets, singers and the like. Mamata Banerjee has been criticised for starting controversial stipends to imams (Iman Bhatta) which was ruled unconstitutional by Calcutta High Court.

On 16 February 2012, Bill Gates, of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, sent a letter to the West Bengal government praising Banerjee and her administration for achieving a full year without any reported cases of polio. The letter said this was not only a milestone for India but also for the whole world.

In June 2012, she launched a Facebook page to rally and gather public support for A.P.J Abdul Kalam, her party’s choice for the presidential elections. After he refused to stand for the second time, she supported Pranab Mukherjee for the post, after a long tussle over the issue, commenting she was personally a “great fan” of Mukherjee and wishing that he “grows from strength to strength”.

She is against calling bandhs (work stoppage) although actively supported them when she was in opposition.

Her tenure was also heavily marred by the Saradha Scam – a financial embezzlement which led to the imprisonment of Madan Mitra – a former minister in her cabinet, Kunal Ghosh-a party MP, and rigorous grilling of several party men holding important posts.

Second term, 2016–present

2016 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election was held for 294 seats (out of 295 seats) of the Vidhan Sabha in the state of West Bengal in India. All India Trinamool Congress won the elections with a landslide two-thirds majority under Mamata Banerjee winning 211 seats out of total 293, who has been elected as Chief Minister West Bengal for the second term. All India Trinamool Congress won with an enhanced majority contesting alone and became the first ruling party to win without an ally since 1962 in West Bengal.

 

Personal life and recognitions

Throughout her political life, Banerjee has maintained a publicly austere lifestyle, dressing in simple traditional Bengali clothes and avoiding luxuries. In an interview in April 2019, Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that despite their political differences, Banerjee sends her own selected kurtas and sweets to him every year.

Banerjee is a self-taught painter and a poet. Her 300 paintings were sold for ₹9crore (90 million, £990,000 or US$1,350,000).

In 2012, Time magazine named her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the WorldBloomberg Markets magazine listed her among the 50 most influential people in the world of finance in September 2012. In 2018, she was conferred the Skoch Chief Minister of the Year Award.

M. K. Stalin

Muthuvel Karunanidhi Stalin (born 1 March 1953) is an Indian politician from Tamil Nadu and the opposition leader in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly since 25 May 2016. He is the son of the former Chief Minister of Tamil NaduM. Karunanidhi.

He’s also the President of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) political party. He was the 37th Mayor of Chennai from 1996 to 2002 and 1st Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from 2009 to 2011.

M.K. Stalin was placed 30th on the list of India’s Most powerful Personalities in 2019 by the Indian Express.

 

Early life and family

Stalin is the third son of 2nd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and DMK Chief M. Karunanidhi, and was born to his wife, Dayalu Ammal. Stalin was born in Madras, now Chennai, on 1 March 1953. Karunanidhi was addressing a condolence meeting for Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who died only four days after his child was born, and thus decided to name his son after Stalin.

Stalin studied at the Madras Christian College Higher Secondary School. He completed a pre-university course at Vivekananda College, and holds a history degree from Presidency College, Chennai of University of Madras. M. K. Stalin was conferred Honorary Doctorates by Anna University on August 1, 2009.

Stalin got married to Durga (alias Shantha) on August 25, 1975 and has two children. His son is Udhayanidhi Stalin.

Politics

His political career began when, as a 14 year old, he campaigned in the 1967 elections. In 1973, Stalin was elected to the General committee of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK).

He came to limelight when he was jailed under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) for protesting against the Indian Emergency in 1975. He wrote his final year BA exams while in prison. Stalin formed the DMK youth wing. In 1982 Stalin became the youth wing secretary of DMK, a post he held for more than four decades.

Stalin contested the Assembly polls unsuccessfully from Thousand Lights constituency in Chennai. In 1989 Stalin contested Assembly polls from Thousand Lights Constituency again, but won this time. But the DMK government got dismissed in 1990 before completing its full five-year term. He contested for the third time from the same Assembly constituency, but lost to the AIADMK under Jayalalithaa. Again in 1996, Stalin won the election as an MLA from the Thousand Lights constituency.

In 2011 Stalin changed his constituency for the first time in his political career, moving from Thousand Lights to Kolathur constituency on the outskirts of Chennai city, if barely.

Mayor of Chennai

Stalin became the city’s first directly elected mayor in 1996. He privatised conservancy operations in the city and constructed nine flyovers and coined a pet project called Singara Chennai (Beautiful Chennai). Stalin was reelected mayor in 2001. However, Chief Minister J. Jayalalithaa enacted the Tamil Nadu Municipal Laws (Amendment) Act, in 2002, which prevents a person from holding two elected posts in the government. This law was applied retroactively to Stalin’s case (he was elected Thousand Lights MLA) in a move widely seen as aimed at removing him as Chennai’s mayor. However, the Madras High Court struck down the law stating that legislative bodies were not “prevented” from making laws affecting the “substantive rights” of persons retrospectively. However, the court held that under Madras (now Chennai) City Municipal Corporation Act, 1919, a person cannot be mayor for two consecutive terms, though unlike Stalin, earlier mayors were not directly elected. Stalin did not appeal in the Supreme Court.

Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu / Rural Development Minister

Stalin became the Minister for Rural Development and Local Administration in the Government of Tamil Nadu after the 2006 Assembly elections. On 29 May 2009, Stalin was nominated as Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu by Governor Surjit Singh Barnala.

On 3 January 2013, Karunanidhi named Stalin as his heir apparent, thus ending a long time confusion about who would take over the party reins after Karunanidhi’s death.

Opposition leader

During the 2016 Assembly election, Stalin went on a statewide tour and underwent a sartorial makeover, shunning the usual DMK dhoti and white shirt. He sported trousers and a t-shirt to inspire the youth. Stalin won the Kolathur constituency and was appointed as the opposition leader.

2019 General election – Secular Progressive Alliance

M.K. Stalin formed the Secular Progressive Alliance in Tamil Nadu under United Progressive Alliance and led the alliance in 2019 general election.

MK Stalin and his alliance in Tamil Nadu won 39 out of 40 Parliament seats, and 12 out of 21 in the Assembly by-election, with 52% of the vote. Its his first victory since taking charge as DMK President.

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad Yadav (born 11 June 1948) is an Indian politician from the state of Bihar.He is the president of the Rashtriya Janata Dal, former Chief Minister of Bihar, former Union Minister of Railways, and former Member of Parliament of the 15th Lok Sabha. He entered politics at Patna University as a student leader and was elected as then youngest member of the Lok Sabha in 1977 as a Janata Party candidate at the age of 29. He became the chief minister of Bihar in 1990. From 1997 to 2005 his wife Rabri Devi ruled as the Chief Minister of the state. His party came to power in 2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election in partnership with Nitish Kumar of JD(U), but Nitish Kumar dumped Lalu Prasad Yadav’s party from power in July 2017.

 

Early and personal life

 

Lalu, second of his parents’ six sons, was born in Phulwaria in Bihar to Kundan Ray and Marachhiya Devi, and attended a local middle school before moving to Patna with his elder brother. After completing Bachelor of Laws and a Ph.D. in Political Science from B. N. College of Patna University, he worked as clerk in Bihar Veterinary College at Patna where his elder brother was also a peon. He turned down Patna University’s Honorary Doctorate in 2004.

Yadav married Rabri Devi on 1 June 1973, in an arranged marriage, and they went on to have two sons and seven daughters.

 

Political career

1970–1990: Student politics

In 1970, Lalu entered in student politics as the general secretary of the Patna University Students’ Union (PUSU), became its president in 1973, joined Jai Prakash Narayan‘ Bihar Movement in 1974 where he became sufficiently close to Janata Party (JP) leaders to become the Janta alliance’s winning candidate in the 1977 Lok Sabha election from Chapra at the age of 29. In 1979, the Janata Party government fell due to in-fighting.The parliament was dissolved with new polls held in 1980. Lalu quit Janta party to join the splinter group, Janta Party-S led by Raj Narain, only to lose the re-election in 1980.He managed to win Bihar Legislative Assembly election later in 1980, and again in 1985 to become leader of opposition in Bihar assembly in 1989.Later in 1989, he was also elected for Lok Sabha under V. P. Singh government.By 1990, he positioned himself as the leader of Yadav (11.7% of the Bihar’s) and lower castes. Muslims, who had traditionally served as Congress (I) vote bank, shifted their support to Prasad after the 1989 Bhagalpur violence. He became popular among the young voters of Bihar.

1990–1997: Lalu and wife as chief ministers of Bihar

In 1990, Janata Dal came to power in Bihar. PM V. P. Singh wanted former chief minister Ram Sundar Das to lead the government. and Chandra Shekhar backed Raghunath Jha. To break deadlock deputy PM Devi Lal nominated Prasad as CM candidate. He was victorious in an internal poll of Janta Dal MLA’s and became the chief minister. On 23 September 1990, Prasad arrested L. K. Advani at Samastipur during the latter’s Ram Rath Yatra to Ayodhya, which establish himself as a secular leader among the people of Bihar. The World Bank lauded his party for its work in the 1990s on the economic front. In 1993, Prasad adopted a pro-English policy and pushed for the re-introduction of English as a language in school curriculum, contrary to the angrezi hatao (banish English) policy of then Uttar Pradesh CM Mulayam Singh Yadav. Policy of opposition to English was considered an anti-elite policy since both the Yadav leaders represented the same social constituents – the backward castes, dalits and minority communities. With the mass support of people of Bihar, Lalu continued to be Bihar CM.

1998–2002: Formation of RJD and out of power

In 1997, due to allegation related to Fodder Scam, a leadership revolt surfaced in Janta Dal, consequently Lalu broke away from Janta Dal and formed a new political party Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD). In 1998 general for 12th Lok Sabha Lalu won from Madhepura, but lost in 1999 general election to Sharad Yadav. In 2000 Bihar Legislative Assembly election he won and remained in opposition.

2002–2005: RJD and Rabri rule in Bihar

In 2002, Lalu was elected in Rajya Sabha where he stayed till 2004. In 2002, RJD formed the government with Rabri Devi as the CM. Except for brief President rule and 8 days term of Nitish Kumar, RJD remained in power in Bihar till 2005.

2004–2009: Railway Minister

In 2004, Yadav contested general election from Chhapra and Madhepura against Rajiv Pratap Rudy and Sharad Yadav respectively and won from both the seats with a huge margin with the great support and faith of people of Bihar. In total, RJD won 21 seats and it allied with Indian National Congress becoming second-largest member of UPA I after Congress. Yadav became the railway minister in the 2004 UPA Government. Later, he gave up the Madhepura seat.

As railway minister, Yadav left passenger fares untouched and focused on other sources of revenue for the railways. He banned plastic cups from being used to serve tea at railway stations and replaced those with kulhars (earthen cups), in order to generate more employment in rural areas. Later, he also said that he had plans to introduce buttermilk and khādī. In June 2004, he announced that he would get on the railway himself to inspect its problems and went on to board the Patna railway station at midnight.

When he took over, the Indian Railways was a loss-making organisation. In the four years under his leadership, it showed a cumulative total profit of Rs.250 billion (US$5.2 billion). According to CAG, it was the new practice of issuing a “statement of cash and investible surplus” that helped Lalu project a rosy picture. In 2008, the profits shown were ₹25,000 crore (US$3.5 billion). Schools of management became interested in Yadav’s leadership in managing the turnaround The alleged turnaround was introduced as a case study by the prestigious Indian Institute of Management. Yadav also received invitations from eight Ivy League schools for lectures, and addressed over a hundred students from HarvardWharton and others in Hindi.

Harvard Business School and HEC Management School, France, have shown interest in turning Lalu’s experiment with the Railway into case studies for aspiring big graduates.

2005–2010: RJD out of power in Bihar

In November 2005 state elections RJD won 54 seats, less than both Janata Dal United (JDU) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Nitish Kumar led coalition, consisting of JD(U) and BJP, came to power. In the 2010 elections, the RJD tally was reduced to just 22 seats whereas the ruling alliance claimed a record 206 out of the 243 Assembly seats.

2009–2014: Out of power in center and Bihar

In 2009 general election RJD won 4 seats and provided outside support to Manmohan Singh government. In May 2012, Lalu Prasad Yadav envisaged Hamid Ansari, previous vice-president, as a presidential candidate. In May 2013, Lalu Yadav tried to rejuvenate the party and fuel the party workers in his Parivartan Rally. After the conviction in Fodder Scam on 3 October 2013, Yadav was disqualified from the membership of Lok Sabha.

In 2014 general election, Lalu Yadav’s RJD again won 4 seats. Lalu Yadav has been working on a merger of six parties to form a Janata Parivar.

2015–current: Conviction in 2 fodder scam cases

In the 2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election, Lalu Yadav’s RJD became the largest party with a total of 81 seats. He along with his partner Nitish Kumar of JD(U) had the absolute majority to form a government in Bihar. This was cited as a major comeback for the RJD and for Lalu Yadav on the political stage of Bihar after a gap of 10 years. But that suffocating alliance did not last long as Nitish Kumar dumped and ousted Lalu’s party from the power and alliance in July 2017 after the Enforcement Directorate and Central Bureau of Investigation lodged several criminal cases against Lalu’s son and Deputy Chief Minister, Tejashwi Yadav.

Writings

Lalu Prasad has written his autobiography named Gopalganj to Raisina Road.

Filmography

Legacy

Books

  • A writer named Neena Jha has written a book on Lalu Prasad named Lalu Prasad, India’s miracle.
  • Book named LalooPrasad Yadav: A Charismatic Leader was published in 1996.
  • “The Making of Laloo Yadav, The Unmaking of Bihar”, updated and reprinted under the title “Subaltern Sahib: Bihar and the Making of Laloo Yadav”, is a book based on Lalu’s life by Sankarshan Thakur.